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  EDUCATION                
DIAMOND 4C'S
DIAMOND SHAPES
GEMSTONE KNOWLEDGE
PEARL KNOWLEDGE
BIRTHSTONES
JEWELRY GLOSSARY
INTERNATIONAL RING SIZE CHART
CARING & CLEANING YOUR JEWELS

 GEMSTONE KNOWLEDGE

We, are proud to provide you with the finest in gemstones as well as the knowledge you need to choose a beautiful piece of jewelry. Because gemstone quality is determined by several factors we would like you to take the time to familiarize yourself with gemstone qualities.

Cut - Unlike diamonds, gemstones do not adhere to strict cut proportions in order to create a visual impact. A well-cut gemstone is one that produces both beauty and uniformity of color.

Color - The beauty and impact of a gemstone is defined by its color. This important characteristic is an expression of the stone's hue, saturation, and tone.

Clarity - The clarity of a gem is determined by the number of inclusions it contains. Because some gems are typically less included than others and the placement of the inclusions has a profound effect on the value and beauty of the stone, we have assembled the following information to help you make better choices.

Size - Because the carat weight of a gemstone can be affected by the stone's density as well as its size, the actual dimensions of the stone are more significant to the consumer.

Enhancements - The appearance, resilience, and availability of a gemstone can be enhanced by a variety of treatments. Although enhancing gemstones is a widespread process that has been practiced for centuries, stones that require no enhancements naturally have far greater value than their enhanced counterparts.

Cut - As you contemplate the quality of a gemstone, consider how its cut affects the overall beauty and visual impact of the stone. Because gemstones vary in consistency and intensity of color as well as number of inclusions, a skilled gem cutter is concerned with creating the most stunning jewel possible, rather than the largest. A stone that has been cut to maximize its size will often contain visible streaks or flaws, while one that has been carefully cut to capture the gemstone's inherent beauty will possess a stunning depth of color. Often a gemstone with a greater intensity of color is cut shallow and one with less color saturation is given a deeper cut. These techniques are used to see that the amount of light reflected out of the stone will create the most dynamic effect possible. Regardless of the color, size, or weight of a gemstone, the facets should be symmetrical and the polish should ensure a smooth, even brilliance.

Color - The seemingly limitless colors of gemstones create a stunning and dramatic effect. The hue, saturation, and tone all contribute to the depth of color and overall beauty of each gemstone.

Hue - The prevailing color of a gemstone is referred to as its hue. Most stones contain one dominant hue as well as one or more underlying colors. Those gems with the purest hues are the most rare and valuable.

Saturation - The intensity of a gemstone's color is referred to as the saturation. Jewels with vivid color saturation exhibit little or no gray or brown hues, which can cause a dark or dull appearance. Sea of Diamonds carries only the most striking gemstones with intense color saturation.

Tone - Having great impact on the appearance of a gemstone is its tone, or depth of color. Ranging from "colorless" to "extremely dark" stones may vary in their transparency and richness of color. The most beautiful of these jewels will have a tone that lies in the middle of this range, offering both stunning color and a bright sparkle.

Clarity - As with diamonds, the clarity of a gemstone is determined by its number of internal flaws (inclusions) and external flaws (blemishes). Because specific gems tend to have more inclusions than others, the Gemological Institute of America has created three colored gemstone clarity types:

GRADING TYPES
Type I
Type I gemstones are those that may typically have no inclusions visible to the naked eye. These stones may exhibit a high degree of clarity and those typically included in this category are Aquamarine, Beryl (green, pink, and yellow), Topaz and Zircon.

Type II
Although the minor inclusions found in this type are potentially visible to the unaided eye, they typically do not detract from the overall beauty of the gemstones. A skilled jeweler can create a favorable cut and setting that will enhance the loveliness of these gemstones. In this category you will usually find Amethyst, Garnet, Opal, Ruby, and Sapphires of all colors.

Type III
The gems included in this type, such as Tourmaline (red) and Emerald, are nearly always included, making nearly flawless specimens extremely rare and valuable. Gems of this type can be skillfully cut and set to exhibit a high level of beauty.

Making a Choice
Depending on the color of gemstone that you are seeking, the level of clarity that is available can vary greatly. Understanding both the gem types and the clarity grades is important in choosing the best quality gemstone that will allow you to stay within your budget while providing you with a cherished piece of jewelry from Sea of Diamonds.

SIZE
Gemstones not only come in a wide variety of colors, they also possess a range of densities, making carat weight an often misleading characteristic. An emerald and a ruby of the same size will have vastly different weights. For this reason, most gemstone sizes are expressed in diameter or length and width measurements rather than weight.

Examining and clearly understanding the size of a gemstone is crucial for selecting a beautiful piece of jewelry. Sea of Diamonds provides you with all the information you need to calculate the size of each gemstone and determine which design is right for you.

ENHANCEMENTS
Enhancements are treatments, other than cutting or polishing, which are performed on natural gemstones to improve their durability, availability, or appearance. By enhancing a gemstone, its natural color and stunning beauty is released, allowing it to truly sparkle.

There are several enhancement processes, some permanent, and some temporary. It is important to remember that the enhancements whether heat, irradiation, diffusion, dye, coating, filling, bleaching, oiling or laser are utilized to positively alter the gemstone. Gemstone enhancement is a common practice throughout the jewelry industry.

ANNIVERSARY GEMSTONES
Anniversary     Gemstone                Anniversary Gemstone
1 Gold Jewelry            15 Ruby
2 Garnet            16 Peridot
3 Pearl            17 Watches
4 Blue Topaz            18 Chrysoberyl
5 Sapphire            19 Aquamarine
6 Amethyst            20 Emerald
7 Onyx            25 Silver Jubilee
8 Tourmaline            30 Pearl Jubilee
9 Lapis Lazuli            35 Emerald
10 Diamond            40 Ruby
11 Turqoise            45 Sapphire
12 Jade            50 Golden Jubilee
13 Citrine            60 Diamond Jubilee
14 Opal               
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 BIRTHSTONES

  January - Garnet

Garnet occurs in a variety of colors such as red, orange, purple and green. It is a durable, affordable, beautiful semi-precious gem that is the mainstay of the jewelry industry. Garnet can be faceted, cabochon cut, beaded or carved. Star stones do exist. Rhodolite, a vivid purple-red to purple garnet, is the most expensive of the red garnets. Of the green varieties, Tsavorite has an intense pure green color, while the rarer Demantoid is a vibrant yellow-green color.

  February - Amethyst

Amethyst is a variety of Quartz that occurs in varying shades of purple, the deeper the color, the greater the value. It is a soft gemstone that is often faceted, beaded, or cabochon cut for jewelry use. The semi-precious amethyst shares many similarities with its sister stone, citrine, and can occur in a beautiful half amethyst, half citrine form called Ametrine.

  March - Aquamarine

Aquamarine is the blue gem form of the mineral Beryl. It is a relative of gemstones such as the emerald and morganite. It is a precious gemstone that often displays a pure blue to greenish-blue hue. It is most valuable when it has an absence of green. The word aquamarine literally means seawater. Bloodstone is an alternate birthstone for March.

  April - Diamond

Diamond is the most highly sought after gem. It is the hardest mineral on Earth. Diamonds are created by the transformation of carbon due to intense pressure and extreme temperature. They occur in a spectrum of colors from colorless to yellow, green, pink, orange, red, purple, blue, brown and black. However, it is the colorless variety that is the most revered. Diamonds have the greatest brilliance and luster of any gem.

  May - Emerald

Emerald is the richly colored green variety of Beryl. It ranges in color from bright clear green to deep bluish-green. A bluish-green color with a lively appearance is the most desirable and valuable. Emeralds are unique in that they are notoriously flawed, and yet they remain a precious gemstone. The "garden effect" of eye visible inclusions is acceptable. Emeralds, while lovely, are brittle and should be worn with care.

  June - Pearl

Pearls are an organic gem formed in shellfish, mainly oysters, occasionally mussels and conch. Pearl forms around an irritant whether it be the tiniest piece of grit or an inserted bead, as a natural reaction; the oyster builds up a layer of nacre around the pearl. As the nacre layer grows, so does the pearl. Pearls are grown in both salt and freshwater. Coldwater areas such as Japan produce pearls generally up to 9.00 mm. Warm waters such as around Tahiti grow the large South Sea variety. Pearls are sensitive and must be cared for gently. Alternative birthstones for June include moonstone and alexandrite.

  July - Ruby

Ruby is the red variety of Corundum. It is a tough mineral, second only to diamond in hardness. Large rubies are difficult to locate, much more so than diamonds, sapphires and emeralds; their value increases more dramatically than any gem, hence ruby is referred to as the King of Gems. The finest rubies are called Burmese. They are intensely red and are often referred to as being "pigeon's blood" red. Jewelers may claim that a gem is Burmese, but technically, it must be certified by an accredited laboratory such as Gubelin or American Gem Labs (AGL) to bear the title Burmese.

  August - Peridot

Peridot is a semi-precious gemstone that occurs in shades of green from clear, watery green to vibrant yellow-green to brownish-green. It was once referred to as the "evening emerald". Due to its abundance, unmistakable color and versatility, it is widely used in the jewelry industry.

  September - Sapphire

Corundum that occurs in colors other than red is called sapphire. The various colors such as yellow, orange, blue, green, pink and purple are all colored by different elements. Like their ruby counterpart, sapphires are a tough mineral, second only to diamond in hardness. Blue is the most popular color. Kashmir is the most valuable of sapphires. It possesses a rich velvety-blue appearance. Colorless sapphire is often used as a more affordable diamond substitute.

   October - Opal or Tourmaline

Opal consists of hardened silica combined with water. It is a delicate gemstone that has a tendency to dry out or crack over time. Opal occurs in many different colors including white, orange, gray and black. An opal's internal structure determines the opalescence, "rainbow" or play-of-color; based upon the individual silica spheres alignment. Opals are unique in that their play-of-color changes as the light strikes; shades of yellow, orange, red, blue and green dazzle the eye. Of them, red is the most valuable. As for body color, black is highly prized, followed by crystal, white and milky opals. Boulder opal is a particular variety consisting of a slice of opal with its natural matrix rock attached. Fire Opal is a vivid orange with no play of color. The various play-of-color patterns have their own value scale as well. Tourmaline is an alternate October birthstone.

  November - Citrine or Golden Topaz

Citrine is a semi-precious gemstone that is the golden yellow variety of Quartz. Citrine shares many similarities with its sister stone, amethyst, and can occur in a beautiful half amethyst, half citrine form called Ametrine. In its most valuable form, Madeira citrine, the gemstone has a rich burnt orange or brandy color. Due to its abundance and versatility, citrine is widely used in the jewelry industry.

Topaz is a semi-precious gemstone that occurs in a wide spectrum of colors, such as yellow, blue, brown, pink, green and a colorless variety. Pink is the most valuable color. Blue topaz is a popular gemstone in its own right, but is also recognized as an affordable alternative to zircon, December's birthstone. Colorless topaz is utilized as a diamond substitute. Golden topaz is the traditional birthstone for November; however, many substitute citrine as a more affordable option.

  December - Blue Topaz or Zircon

Blue topaz is a popular gemstone in its own right, but is also recognized as an affordable alternative to zircon, December's birthstone. Topaz is a semi-precious gemstone that occurs in a wide spectrum of colors, such as yellow, blue, brown, pink, green and a colorless variety. In its golden form, it is recognized as the traditional birthstone for November.

Zircon occurs in a variety of colors, such as blue, green, brown, orange and colorless. It is a transparent gemstone with a high degree of brilliance, much akin to diamond. Blue zircon is the most sought after color. Zircon is the traditional birthstone for December; however there are two other birthstone options; blue topaz, is more affordable and readily available, or turquoise, the historical birthstone for December.

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